Border management is a key focus of development work, and partnerships between UN agencies, the European Union, and programme countries, in the developing and transition countries of Europe and Central Asia. In the past decade, EU-funded border management projects implemented by UNDP have delivered more than €140 million.
Specific projects include the following:
BOMCA:The Border Management for Central Asia programme promotes the gradual adoption of integrated border management methods in the region by enhancing border security and facilitating legal trade and transit. The introduction of European integrated border management methodologies, based inter alia on the experience of the Schengen process (combining firm but modern ‘external’ border management with liberalized ‘internal’ border movements) is an important emphasis. Activities include policy advice on legal and institutional reforms, procurement of border infrastructure, and strengthening national border management capacities. BOMCA, which has delivered some €26 million in programming since its inception, is now moving into its eighth phase (with an €8 million budget). Implementation of BOMCA 8 will rely on a partnership between the European Commission, EU member states, UNDP, the Vienna-based International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICPMD), and other development partners. UNDP has also helped implement phases of the EU’s Central Asia Drug Action Programme, budgeted at €14 million.
Border Management in Badakhshan: Whereas BOMCA has focused primarily on internal borders within Central Asia, the European Commission is now adopting an approach similar to BOMCA’s vis a vis the Tajikistan – Afghanistan border. The focus is on border regions in eastern Tajikistan’s mountainous Badakhshan province. UNDP has helped implement nearly €4 million under this programme.
EUBAM: The EU Border Assistance Mission to Moldova and Ukraine supports the two countries in better managing the 1,222 kilometre Ukrainian – Moldovan border, in particular focusing on the Transnistrian region segment. The mission trains and supports border guards and customs services in their efforts to facilitate the legal, efficient, cross-border movement of goods and persons, and contributes to the international community’s efforts to peacefully resolve the Transnistrian conflict. On-the-job training and advice to Moldovan and Ukrainian officials provided by more than 100 customs and border guard experts from 22 EU member states have proved to be effective capacity- building tools. UNDP has since 2005 been implementing EUBAM, which employs over 200 staff. Current commitments under this €55 million programme run until 2011.
BOMMOLUK: EUBAM has also coordinated the Improvement of Border Controls at the Moldova-Ukraine Border, a €9 million programme which is likewise UNDP implemented and co-funded. The project has focused on equipment procurement, risk analysis, and training for officers at joint border crossing points. The EU has funded technical assistance through direct procurement of goods and services by the EU delegations, and through direct budget support (in Ukraine). These initiatives are designated ‘EUBAM flanking measures’.
SCIBM: The South Caucasus Integrated Border Management programme , has since 2009 been supporting the implementation of integrated border management strategies by the governments of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. Whereas overall contractual responsibility vis-à-vis the European Commission rests with UNDP, implementation of project components is delegated to border management agencies in the Czech Republic, Estonia, France, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, as well as ICMPD.
BOMBEL (Enhancing Border Management in Belarus), BOMUK (Enhancing Border Management in Ukraine), and EBCMP (Enhancing Border Control Management in Moldova) have followed essentially the same pattern as BOMCA, offering a package of capacity building measures for each country’s state border guard service, including training, creating European-standard accommodation centres for irregular migrants, upgrading dog training centres, and introducing sophisticated technology, such as the biometric identification of travellers. Some €20 million in has been delivered under these programmes.
SCAD: The South Caucasus Anti-Drug Programme combines integrated border management to prevent narcotics trafficking (supply-side interdiction) with support for national efforts to prevent drug abuse and care for drug addicts (demand-side management). UNDP has helped implement nearly €6 million under this programme.
BUMAD: Prevention of Drug Abuse and Fighting Drug Trafficking in Belarus, Ukraine, and Moldova takes a similar approach to drug abuse and trafficking in the Western CIS countries. UNDP has helped implement €7 million under the first three phases of this programme.
Customs Modernization in Azerbaijan: UNDP has since 1999 been helping the State Customs Committee to automate its work via the introduction of modern ICT instruments, as well as simplify border and customs regulation EC funding of €800,000 has supported this multi-million dollar initiative.
Vitalie Vremis (UNDP Moldova) and Zuzana Aschenbrennerova (UNDP Regional Centre, Slovakia)